The Reason Why PDF/EPUB ¼ The Reason PDF/EPUB or

The Reason Why PDF/EPUB ¼ The Reason PDF/EPUB or

The Reason Why ☃ [PDF / Epub] ☂ The Reason Why By John Gribbin ✑ – Existen varios centenares de miles de millones de estrellas en la Vía Láctea Realizando una estimación conservadora varios miles de millones de ellas tienen en su órbita a planetas capaces de albe Existen varios centenares de miles de millones de estrellas en la Vía Láctea Realizando una estimación conservadora varios miles de millones de ellas tienen en su órbita a planetas capaces de albergar vida Puede ue haya más planetas habitables en la galaxia ue gente en el planeta tierra Pero habitable no significa habitado La tesis de mi libro es ue solo en la tierra existe una civilización inteligenteEn ese sentido nuestra civilización está sola The Reason PDF/EPUB or y es especial Este libro les cuenta por uéJohn Gribbin de la Introducción.

  • Hardcover
  • 256 pages
  • The Reason Why
  • John Gribbin
  • English
  • 04 July 2016
  • 9781846143274

About the Author: John Gribbin

John R Gribbin is a British science writer an astrophysicist and a visiting fellow in astronomy at the University of Sussex The topical range of his prolific writings includes uantum physics biographies of famous scientists human evolution the origins of the universe climate change and global warming His also writes science fictionJohn Gribbin graduated with his bachelor's degree in phy.

10 thoughts on “The Reason Why

  1. David David says:

    In this book the author a prominent British scientist lends one voice to the stark conclusion which several other authors have raised lately namely that we are alone in the Milky Way Yes this is in spite of the numerous recent discoveries of potentially habitable planets around other stars This all stems from Fermi's paradox in 1950 noted nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi while having lunch with colleagues suddenly blurted out Where is everybody He reasoned that if there was any other technological civilization in the Milky Way then it was almost certainly many thousands or millions of years advanced and if so then surely some from that civilization would have explored and colonized at least with robotic probes all reasonably habitable locales in the Milky Way including ours Yet we do not see any evidence of such visits So they must not existAfter a rather thorough discussion of all of the ways in which our own planet is apparently uniue Gribbin comes to a similar conclusionOn a planet like the Earth life may only get one shot at technology we have exhausted the easily accessible supplies of raw materials so if we destroy ourselves the next intelligent species if there is one won't have the necessary raw materials to get started There are no second chances And that is the last piece of evidence that completes the resolution of the Fermi paradox They are not here because they do not exist The reasons why we are here form a chain so improbable that the chance of any other technological civilization existing in the Milky Way Galaxy at the present time is vanishingly small We are alone and we had better get used to it

  2. B Kevin B Kevin says:

    Bad news for SETI enthusiasts Our intelligent technological species and civilization are the result of a long chain of very low probabilities Multiply together a string of very small numbers ie the Drake Euation and you get a vanishingly small number Gribbin as usually provides a clear cogent review of how we came to be Finally an antidote to the DrakeSagen groupies who think the universe is teaming with radio astronomers Fermi's unanswered uestion Where are they? has been answered They are not there

  3. Koen Crolla Koen Crolla says:

    Gribbin has said some phenomenally stupid things in past books but he's really outdone himself in this one The Reason Why starts from a dubious premise — Earth is uniuely suited to life — and throws both legitimate science terribly abused and outright borderline innumerate bullshit at the reader for two hundred pages in the hope that any of it stick Most arguments take the following form1 X happened at some point in our galaxy'ssolar system'splanet's history;2 X has positive or neutral hand waved into significance implications for life;3 Therefore X must be necessary for lifeOr possibly1 Y happened at some point in our galaxy'ssolar system'splanet's history;2 Y has negative implications for life;3 Therefore life must be very unlikely in this hostile universeHow common X is or how rare Y is usually brushed under the rug and in the end all likelihoods are multiplied and held up as proof that life on Earth must be incredibly unlikely; sufficiently so that there won't be any on any of the trillions of trillions of other planets in the universe It's the fine tuned universe all over again except that the bullshit Gribbin desperately wants to believe isn't God None of it will be convincing to the sort of person who picks up books from the Popular Science section of their bookstore or libraryI don't know if Lovelock has turned Gribbin's brain to mush or if this is some pre existing condition but the only thing this book serves to demonstrate is that scientific literacy which Gribbin does possess does not make a person immune to disingenuous rationalisations in the service of things they merely want to be true

  4. Jose Moa Jose Moa says:

    John Gribbin is a great popular science writer and in this book he has made a great jobThe book is the complement to the Rare Earth by Ward and Brownlee but the Gribbin book takes a step an asks for technological inteligent life not only complex life and makes emphasis in the astronomical aspects at the light of last breakthougts as our very special position in the galaxy by why our sun is not commonby why our solar sistema and planet earth are unlikely;the unlikely is that our planet has a big moon that stabilices the tilt of the earth axisfavoures the plate techtonics the magnetic field and long time ago great tides that aided the pass of complex life from ocean to landIn resumen our inteligence is the product of many unlakely steps tha makes the product near to zeroBy other hand the existence of inteligence not necesarily drives to technologyfor example the dolphins can be te other inteligent specie in our planet but dont have handsfire nor metal and by that no technologyThe conclusión of Gribbin is that we are alone in the entire Galaxy and perhaps in the entire observable universe

  5. Nola Redd Nola Redd says:

    Anyone who has taken a significant number of science classes will likely come to this book with the same bias I have having been repeatedly taught that the Earth the solar system and the Milky Way are in no wise special But Gribbin argues a perspective different from most scientists that in the galaxy at least intelligent life is a rare occurrence and that the Earth is likely exceedingly special if not completely uniueGribban's arguments are often hampered by the fact that they are frozen in a book Anyone who has followed the updates of NASA's Kepler mission will raise their eyes at the fact that at publication only Jupiter like planets had been discovered Similarly Gribbin knocks out red dwarfs as potentially hosting habitable planets though research in the last few years suggests life could thrive Such problems are of course not the fault of the author who can only work with the data available and not what will one day be knownLeaving that slight problem behind Gribbin does an excellent job of walking the non scientist through conditions that make the sun the solar system and the Earth uniue He lays out his arguments for the conditions necessary for life to evolve and why it would take a fortuitous string of actions to allow it If you want to know a bit about the galaxy he provides clear descriptions of what makes it tickBut While his arguments are logical and well laid out most of the time they also feature flagrant omissions that frustrated me Here are just a fewGribbin argues that the extrasolar planets observed at the time were 'hot Jupiters' large gas giants that stay close to the sun He does note in passing that observational techniues are skewed toward finding such planets when studying planets that gravitationally tug at their parent star large close bodies will be easiest to spot Despite this he uses the dominance of these discoveries to argue that small rocky planets are rare Of course they were rarely seen; the observations were admittedly biased toward large planets due to technological limitationsOn a side note NASA's Kepler has shown instead that rocky planets abound throughout the galaxyGribbin also argues that a moon that is proportionately as large as its planet as Earth's is rare However he is basing it off the observation of four rocky planets which is a 25% probability He is careful to note that no FULL SIZED planet has such a moon; this is because the dwarf planet Pluto has a similarly large moon that likely formed the same wayThese are only two examples but several aboundSimilarly the author never uses footnotes and rarely cites his claims There were a few points he brought up that I was unfamiliar with and so googled He does occasionally mention sources by name but not freuently And in at least one case the idea that the mass extinctions in the Younger Dryas period was caused by an impact he neglects to note that many scientists oppose this idea and that the group that has proposed it has no simulations to back up their theory In fact recently a group of scientists from a number of fields published a paper in a respected journal refuting the claim including an impact specialist who demonstrated that the physics proposed were not possibleand he used simulations Similarly I found very little published work linking extinctions with the passage through the galaxy's spiral armsOften in fact the author relies on the argument that 'we don't know how a could have caused b but it makes sense' to state his case a lousy case for a scientist to make Then he strings these conceptual possibilities together to assert that humans are it for intelligent life in the Milky WayAnother trick he freuently employs is the use of the phrases 'like us' or 'as we know it' The conditions he describes may well mean that there are no other humanoid like aliens on rocky planets virtually identical to earth but that doesn't mean another different form of life could not have come into play on another dissimilar planet even now scientists think life could have evolved on Jupiter's moon Europa which orbits outside the defined habitable zone but contains a sheet of ice insulating water or Saturn's moon Titan where liuid ammonia prevails instead of water As a side note having interviewed a number of astrophysicists astronomers and planetary scientists I've noticed that when asked about the possibilities of life or habitability they tend to respond with 'that's not my field' and point me toward astrobiologistsThere were a number of points that the author raised that I would like to explore but I take most of his arguments with an enormous grain of salt Still in most cases he managed to explain very technical arrangements uite clearly so he gets points for that Separating fact from speculation however could be a challenge for those who know little about the field

  6. Scott Lupo Scott Lupo says:

    Super interesting book taking the view that Earth and the technological intelligent beings inhabiting Earth is a totally rare event in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way I come from the view that with billions of stars in a galaxy and billions of galaxies throughout the universe that it just comes down to pure numbers There has to be intelligent life out there somewhere John Gribbin does a good job of saying Hold on maybe we are the only intelligent life in the universe He consedes that life certainly exists on other planets but intelligent life that's a whole different ballgame The events that occurred over billions of years in our solar system and there are a lot of them Gribbin believes is uniue and is most likely improbable to happen again He makes a good argument on how improbable it was that we exist today Things had to go a certain way in terms of geologic time and circumstances Of course we are talking about millions of years at a time 100's of millions billions which means really anything could have happened Of course we can infer uite a bit of information from core samplings rocks meteorites that hit Earth etc While he really does make some good arguments I still think we are missing something or that this type of science is still too new to come to any concrete conclusions However I always like to read both sides of a discussion to get all points of view This point of view made by Gribbin is good but I think future evidence will show that we are not alone in the universe

  7. Ron Ron says:

    Another discussion of the extraordinary events in the creation of the solar system where it is in the galaxy how it seemed to have formed how the earth seems to have formed and endured despite all sorts of assaults from without the Late Heavy Bombardment the Chixulub impact the Tunguska event and within massive volcanic activity continental formation and drifting Snowball Earth and subseuent Ice Ages that all contributed to the formation of life and eventually to intelligent technological life The premise of the book its argument and its conclusion are that the circumstances that have led to us here now were so extraordinary that we are very likely the only ones anywhere I find the argument of placement in the galaxy where there were sufficient metallic elements in the cosmic mix to create a multifarious Earth and far enough away from young big stars that will go supernova and wipe out everything nearby to be new to me and compellingIt reiterated many of the issues in Rare Earth but from enough of a different angle that it was always interesting For a short 20 page book it took me an unusually long time to get through it It gives me some solace in the fact that my genes will predispose me to shuffle off this mortal coil within a decade or so so I won't be around for the inevitable environmental breakdown once greenhouse gases hit the tipping point and boil everything up Now to find some arguments for the other side which will have to be damn good to shove aside those made by this book and Rate Earth

  8. Jack Jack says:

    I thought that the author was actually a little weak on the science Gribbin would make certain assertions about why particular conditions or processes in evolution were likely to be uncommon attempt to support with one or two facts but would then use these assertions later in the book as assumptions that formed the basis of other assertions For example he discussed the possibility of the earth crossing certain boundaries of density in the intergalactic medium made by the arms in the spiral of the Milky Way and attempts to link these crossings with historical mass extinctions in the history of life on earth However except for making plausibility arguments for these connections he is not able to show that readers should accept his assertions ie while the connection is possible there isn't much scientifically provided to support believing that such a connection is true He then uses these crossing events to claim that planets nearer the galactic center would experience extinctions freuently because their orbits are shorter and therefore intelligent life couldn't evolve on these planets because of these crossings Thus assertions become assumptions and I found this book less than scientifically satisfying

  9. Erik Erik says:

    I think the book relied too heavily upon our own incompletely understood story of intelligent life on earth a big assumption to argue for the absence of all other forms of intelligent life in the universe Yes our story reuires some lucky accidents and links in a chain but there may well be other chains and other stories The odds of an exact replication of our story and just that story probably are infinitesimal but that's fallacious reasoning The odds of an exact repetition of any sufficiently complex event are infinitesimal but that doesn't rule out the occurrence of many other events sufficiently similar to ualify under a definition of what similar enough means The Fermi paradox is mentioned uite a lot but this argument by absence too presumes that they are like us as a basic premise and so is vulnerable to objections I'm an optimist about intelligent life in the universe but it is likely so different we would not in our present state of understanding even recognize it as such nor its goals and manifestations in other species Read Stanislaw Lem's Fiasco for a nice reminder of this

  10. John Sheahan John Sheahan says:

    Well argued accessible informative But it was an argument for the emphatic conclusion that there is no other technologically advanced species in our neck of the cosmic woods Some of the statistical glosses irked me for example the implication that 006% of the stars in our galaxy is a minuscule number It isn't When there are an estimated 100 billion stars not including red dwarfs in the galaxy that small percentage comes to 60 million stars That we are 'special' in the universe I can accept but utterly undoubtedly uniue? No

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