Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies PDF

Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies PDF


Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies [EPUB] ✸ Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies ✽ Jared Diamond – Centrumpowypadkowe.co.uk Diamond has written a book of remarkable scope one of the most important and readable works on the human past published in recent yearsWinner of the Pulitzer Prize and a national bestseller the global Diamond and Steel The Fates Kindle - has written a book of and Steel eBook ↠ remarkable scope one of the most important and readable works on the human past published in recent yearsWinner of the Pulitzer Prize and a national bestseller the global account of the rise of civilization that is also a stunning refutation of ideas of human development based on raceIn this artful informative and delightful William H McNeill New York Review of books book Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern Germs and Steel The Fates PDF or world Societies that Guns Germs Kindle - had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter gatherer stage and then developed writing technology government and organized religion—as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war—and adventured on sea and land to conuer and decimate preliterate cultures A major advance in our understanding of human societies Guns Germs and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human historyWinner of the Pulitzer Prize the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Germs and Steel PDF/EPUB » Science the Rhone Poulenc Prize and the Commonwealth Club of California's Gold Medal.

  • Paperback
  • 425 pages
  • Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies
  • Jared Diamond
  • English
  • 23 October 2016
  • 9780739467350

About the Author: Jared Diamond

Jared and Steel The Fates Kindle - Diamond is the author of and Steel eBook ↠ the Pulitzer Prize winning Guns Germs and Steel He is Professor of Geography at UCLA and has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society He has dedicated this book to his sons and future generations.



10 thoughts on “Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies

  1. Molly Molly says:

    This is what happens when you take an intelligent person and casually make a few mentions of a field of study they have no knowledge ofMr Diamond NOT an anthropologist takes Marvin Harris' theory of cultural materialism and uses it to explain everything in life history and the current state of the worldMaterialism is a way of looking at human culture which for lack of a better way to explain it easily here says that people's material needs and goods determine behavior and culture For instance Jews stopped eating pigs because it became so costly to feed pigs they themselves were starvingOn the surface materialism seems very logical Like any theory it has to be at least somewhat probable sounding and since people are used to thinking of life these days in terms of materialistic values already Harris' theory sounds logical and likely very oftenBut like every other time you attempt to explain everything that ever happened in the history of man with one theory this falls desperately short of reality Materialism is likely ONLY when coupled sensibly with other theories and need I say it actual PROOF of which Diamond has littleAs an exercise in materialist theory this book is magnificent I would recommend this book ONLY to people in Anthropology with a great understanding of theory less educated or unwarned people might think this book is fact rather than an exercise in speculation As an explanation of why the world is the way it is it is an utter and complete failure

  2. Manny Manny says:

    Original review Dec 10 2008I liked this book and it taught me a bunch of things I hadn't known before I read it Jared Diamond has clearly had a interesting life than most of us and spent significant amounts of time in a wide variety of different kinds of society all over the world He says he got the basic idea from a conversation he had back in the 70s with a friend in New Guinea His friend who later became a leader in the independence movement wanted to talk about cargo manufactured goods technology Why is it he asked that you Europeans have so much cargo than we do? Diamond thought he had come up with a good uestion and wrote the book in an attempt to answer itThe core of Diamond's explanation is that Europeans were essentially lucky in two respects First we have unusually many easily domesticable plant and animal species Second since Europe is oriented East West rather than North South a species which is domesticated in one part of Europe has a good chance of thriving in another so there are many opportunities to swap farming technology between different areas It helps that there is an easily navigable river system and also that there are no impassible deserts or mountain ranges These conditions are not reproduced in most other parts of the world; Diamond has a range of interesting tables showing how few useful domesticable species there are elsewhere Because we got efficient farming earlier than most other people we also got cities and advanced technology earlier and everything else followed from that initial lead we establishedOne objection you could make is that it wasn't luck but rather that Europeans were enterprising than people in other areas about finding good species to domesticate Diamond's answer to this is fairly convincing Having lived extensively with pre industrial people he says that we city dwellers just don't understand how well they know their flora and fauna and how active their interest in them is I guess a New Guinea tribesman would conversely be surprised at how uickly word gets around on the Internet when a cool new website appears Basically what he's saying is that pre industrial people tried everything that could be tried and when they didn't find anything good it's because it wasn't there Systematic studies by modern scientists do seem to support this conclusionAnother criticism some readers have leveled at Diamond is that he makes history completely deterministic once the geography was fixed everything that happened after that was inevitable I don't actually think that's fair Diamond is open about the fact that his theories make one embarrassingly incorrect prediction if it was all about being first to domesticate plant and animal species and set up efficient farming then China should be the world's preeminent civilization Even though he makes some attempt to explain why this isn't so there does right now seem to be a fair case for saying that it's not only geographyLuckily George W Bush has been working hard to try and smooth things out If the Western world can just arrange two or three leaders like him all of Diamond's data will hopefully come out the way it's supposed to and the last few hundred years of Western history can be written off as a statistical blip Way to go Dubya Update Oct 1 2012I was surprised this morning to discover that Darwin in On the Origin of Species expressed an opinion diametrically opposite to the one Diamond argues forIf it has taken centuries or thousands of years to improve or modify most of our plants up to their present standard of usefulness to man we can understand how it is that neither Australia the Cape of Good Hope nor any other region inhabited by uite uncivilised man has afforded us a single plant worth culture It is not that these countries so rich in species do not by a strange chance possess the aboriginal stocks of any useful plants but that the native plants have not been improved by continued selection up to a standard of perfection comparable with that given to the plants in countries anciently civilisedDoes Diamond mention this? Unfortunately I don't have a copy to hand Update Mar 20 2020We seem to be well on track Deadly virus comes out of China Western leaders react with a mixture of denial and incompetence as infection rates soar and their economies crumble Diamond's analysis was so accurate that he couldn't believe his own conclusions

  3. Will Byrnes Will Byrnes says:

    “Why you white men have so much cargo ie steel tools and other products of civilization and we New Guineans have so little?” Jared Diamond is a biologist who had a passion for studying birds particularly the birds of New Guinea But as he came to know and appreciate the many native people he met in his work the uestion asked by a New Guinean named Yani remained with him Why was it that westerners had so much relative to New Guinean natives who had been living on that land for forty thousand years Many found an explanation in racial exceptionalism Diamond decided to find out Was one group of people smarter than another? Why was there such dimorphism in the amount of cargo produced and toted by different groups?The arguments he seeks to counter are those stating that since civilization came to full flower in the Eurasian countries and not in places where other races dominated that this success indicated innate superiority He offers a stunning analysis of why civilization emerged in the places in which it did Jared Diamond – image from The GuardianGuns figure large in why some societies were able dominate others but the development of guns was not a universal The materials necessary are not eually distributed over the planet and there are technological prereuisites It turns out that not every locale is ideal for the emergence of farming He offers some detail on why farming flourished in some areas than in others The importance of domesticated animals is considered Diamond shows how it was possible for them to have been domesticated in some but not all of the theoretically possible locations He discusses the impact of germs the immunity defense developed by urban dwellers and the harm those germs can cause when those urban dwellers come into contact with peoples who lack such immunities Although Steel figures prominently in the title and is significant in its use in weaponry this aspect is given the lightest treatment in the book Diamond closes with a plea for history to be redefined as History Science claiming that as with many other historical sciences it holds the elements necessary to merit the science designationWhile I might have been happier if the title had been Guns Germs and Seeds it remains a seminal look at the whys and wherefores of how some societies came to flourish often at the expense of others It has nothing to do with genes Guns Germs and Steel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize EXTRA STUFFLinks to the author’s personal Twitter and FB pagesAn excellent National Geogrtaphic documentary was made of this book Here is a link to the first of its three episodesDiamond's book Collapse is also amazing

  4. Mike Shapiro Mike Shapiro says:

    Author Jared Diamond's two part thesis is 1 the most important theme in human history is that of civilizations beating the crap out of each other 2 the reason the beat ors were Europeans and the beat ees the Aboriginees Mayans et al is because of the geographical features of where each civilization happened to develop Whether societies developed gunpowder written language and other technological niceties argues Diamond is completely a function of whether they emerged amidst travel and trade condusive geography and easily domesticable plants and animalsI'm not sure I agree that why the Spanish obliterated the Mayans instead of visa versa is the most interesting uestion of human history How about the evolution of ideas or the impact of great leaders and inventors? But it is an interesting uestion and worth exploring Diamond is a philosophical monist neatly ascribing just about every juncture in human history to a single cause or related group of causes Given his extensive background in botany and geology it makes sense that he would look for the impact of those factors in the human story Unfortunately those factors are all he regards as important; he relegates to insignificance the contribution of ideas innovations and the decision making of individuals or cultures His view is fatalistic seemingly motivated by a PC era desire to pronounce all cultures eual and their fates the product of random circumstanceA contradiction here is that fatalistic viewpoints are incompatible with moral pronouncements If nobody can control their actions who's to blame for anything? Diamond is condemnatory of the Spanish incursion into Mayan lands but the logical conseuence of his theory is that the Mayans would have done the same to the Spanish if they had been first to develop the musket and frigate Taking Diamond's theory seriously means we'd have to view imperialism as natural and unavoidable like the predation of animals and be unable to criticize any culture's actions whateverAll that said this is a fascinating and worthwhile readThere's no doubt that the factors Diamond identified had some role in human progress however and if you can put aside the author's predisposition towards his own field and somewhat sketchy philosophical foundation the book is a compelling and vivid account of what life was like for the earliest civilizations Diamond describes the evolution of agriculture written language and other indispensable facets of human history giving us a crash tour through the earliest days of human history The specialized expertise that ultimately derails Diamond's overview at the same time offers a compelling and detailed view of the rise of mankind

  5. Michael Finocchiaro Michael Finocchiaro says:

    It took me a while to complete Diamond's book and admittedly I also distracted myself with a few Roth novels in the meantime because of the density of the text and the variety of ideas presented The central thesis that it is not racial biology that determines the victors in history but rather a complex combination of agriculture geography population density and continental orientation is a fascinating and compelling one The style is not academic and did admittedly put me off by using sentences with in them and yet does come across as the fruit of years or decades of research in an astounding number of fields simultaneously biology agriculture history climatology sociology etc I can understand why Mr Diamond received accolades and a Pulitzer for this complex work written at the level that the layman non scientist can still grasp The funniest story that struck me was the WERTY keyboard one which apparently is the least ergonomic design but due to its rapid adoption by typists due to capitalist competition and afterwards its ubiuity once computers became important it is impossible to dislodge I still find it easier to use than the AZERTY one here in France LOL The one thing that struck me and here I warn readers that I climb on my soapbox near the Marble Arch for a moment is the abundance of corroborating evidence for human evolution and development that has solid artefacts and proof going back 40000 years and by the most precise dating methods available by today's scientists For anyone with a shred of intelligence to try and say the world is only 6000 years old and created in state as it were is pure insanity and blindness And yet we now have high placed individuals in the US holding these beliefs and poised to poison American youth with medieval and ignorant ideas such as young earth creationism If one is to take reality at face value rather than with massive filters eliminating reason and coherence from it then one cannot possibly justify believing that all humans came from Adam and Eve and that they were white as snow and racially superior to their offspring This book proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that just because one has white skin that this is not a determinant in the development of the individual and hisher peers as human beings It is critical that works like this get wide diffusion in order to debunk racial superiority theories that gave rise to the horrors on Hitler and continue to inform white supremacists and Islamic radicals and all other religious or racial bigots because their underlying fundamentals are based on patently false principles OK down from soapbox now The book was well written if a bit repetitive at times and presents eye opening and inventive analysis that will help me see the world I live in differently Highly recommended Especially in view of the rise of revisionist white supremacist bullshit

  6. Siria Siria says:

    Terrible This is one of those books which seems at face value as if it has an interesting and persuasive thesis and indeed there are a couple of reasonable points in here but by and large Guns Germs and Steel is a poorly written book shoddily argued and riddled with factual errors Jared Diamond's thesis is that the differences which one can observe in technological and economic development around the world do not result from racial differences but rather from geographical ones the variety and nutritional value of available crops the number of animals which could be domesticated the geographical axes of the various continents Diamond claims that this is an anti racist theory because it points out that white people were just lucky not inherently deserving or talented or resourceful than people anywhere else in the world However Diamond's intention to write an anti racist book doesn't mean that he succeeded in doing so There are layers of problematic assumptions and unconscious Eurocentrism underlying his writing layers which make Guns Germs and Steel an uneasy read you for the reader whom Diamond seems to hypothesise in the book is a white Westerner there's no sense that a PoC from say Malaysia or Egypt might have picked it up should not feel a sense of accountability or responsibility or guilt for colonialism or imperialism or the ongoing exploitation of most of the world's population by those living in the developed world It's no one's fault it's just geographyWhen it comes to assessing the reliability of Diamond's arguments the fact that there are no footnotes and no full bibliography make that a somewhat difficult task but I know enough about sub Saharan African history to know that he characterises several key things incorrectly and just enough about the history of the Americas to be very suspicious about things that Diamond claims There are numerous minor factual errors like saying that oi means sheep in Irish p 343 The Irish word for sheep is caora and as far as I know there's no such word as oi or even oí in Irish This is admittedly minor but if you indulge in repeated bouts of carelessness like that you're going to make me suspicious about the factual foundations of the rest of your arguments And indeed while I can't assess the validity of some of Diamond's scientific claims though the continent axis theory falls apart the you start to think about it as does his failure to consider the impact of human alteration of the environment I do know that I'd expect better historical argumentation from an undergraduate history major For instance when about to describe the meeting of the conuistador Pizarro with the Incan emperor Atahuallpa he saysWhat unfolded that day at Cajamarca is well known because it was recorded in writing by many of the Spanish participants by six of Pizarro's companions including his brothers Hernando and Pedro pp 68 69Which of course is nonsense What we have is a record of what six individual Spanish men and no Incans wanted the Spanish king to think had happened on that day A moment's thought would tell you that there are multiple problems with using their writings as a straightforward means of assessing anything about Incan culture and society Rookie errors like that made me roll my eyes extra hard at the epilogue in which Diamond explains to historians what our discipline should look like and how we should think of it How about no sir if you've repeatedly demonstrated a lack of ability to think historically you don't get to decide what historians should do It's also worth pointing out that even if one accepts Diamond's thesis as persuasive it doesn't actually answer the uestion he sets out to answer why it is that EuropeanWestern societies set out to establish political and cultural hegemony over the rest of the world and were so successful at it Just because a society is technologically or economically complex than its neighbour doesn't mean that it automatically sets out to conuer it that's a uestion you can't answer with geography You have to theorise power and social structure and Diamond can't do that Avoid

  7. Nate Nate says:

    This may be the most over rated book in the history of book rating The point he is making is that we in Western Civilazation haven't built skyscrapers made moon landings mass produced automobiles eradicated polio or for that matter lived indoors with running water while aborigines in certain remote outposts still hunt and gather in isolated tribes because we are inherently any smarter or industrious than those individuals Of course he is mostly right but why in the 21st century is this considered such a novel idea and why does he have to be so BORING about it? Don't believe the hype

  8. Jason Koivu Jason Koivu says:

    Misleading The actual title should be Germs More Germs and a bit about Steel And Guns but not very much on those last two reallyI mean we want to put Guns first because it's attention grabbing than Germs but let's face it this book is mostly about Germs Why has no publishing house knocked down my door trying to obtain my book titling services yet?

  9. Ahmad Sharabiani Ahmad Sharabiani says:

    Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Jared DiamondThe book attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conuered others while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual moral or inherent genetic superiority Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 trans disciplinary non fiction book by Jared Diamond professor of geography and physiology at the University of California Los Angeles UCLA عنوان ت‍ف‍ن‍گ‌ه‍ا، م‍ی‍ک‍روب‌ه‍ا و ف‍ولاد؛ اسلحه، میکروب و فولاد سرنوشت جوامع انسانی؛ نویسنده ج‍رد میسن دای‍ام‍ون‍د دایموند؛ تاریخ نخستین خوانش روز نهم ماه اکتبر سال 2002میلادیعنوان ت‍ف‍ن‍گ‌ه‍ا، م‍ی‍ک‍روب‌ه‍ا و ف‍ولاد؛ نویسنده ج‍رد میسن دای‍ام‍ون‍د دایموند؛ مت‍رج‍م‍ س‍وس‍ن‌ س‍ل‍ی‍م‌زاده‌؛ ت‍ه‍ران‌ وزارت‌ ف‍ره‍ن‍گ‌ و ارش‍اد اس‍لام‍ی‌، س‍ازم‍ان‌ چ‍اپ‌ و ان‍ت‍ش‍ارات‌، 1380؛ در 682ص؛ شابک ایکس 964422258؛ موضوع ت‍ک‍ام‍ل‌ اج‍ت‍م‍اع‍ی‌ ت‍م‍دن‌ ت‍اری‍خ‌ قوم شناسی اشاعه فرهنگ از نویسندگان ایالات متحده امریکا سده 20معنوان اسلحه، میکروب و فولاد سرنوشت جوامع انسانی؛ نویسنده جرد دایموند ؛ مترجم حسن مرتضوی؛ تهران بازتاب نگار‏‫، 1387؛ در 539ص؛ شابک 9789648223378؛ چاپ دوم 1394؛ چاپ سوم 1396؛‬ چاپ دیگر تهران، نشر کلاغ، 1391؛ در 544ص؛ شابک 9786009298464؛تلاشی است برای توضیح اینکه چرا تمدن‌های اوراسیا به همراه شمال آفریقا، موفق به تسخیر، یا مقاومت در برابر دیگر تمدن‌ها شده‌ اند، و در عین حال تلاش در رد باوری که سلطه ی اورآسیا را، به برتری اروپایی‌ها، و آسیایی‌ها از لحاظ اخلاقی، ذاتی، ژنتیکی، یا فکری نسبت می‌دهددایموند استدلال می‌کند، که شکاف در قدرت، و فناوری، بین جوامع انسانی، ریشه در تفاوت‌های زیست‌ محیطی دارد، تفاوت‌هایی که حلقه ی بازخورد مثبت آن‌ها را، تقویت می‌کند به این معنا که برتری محیطی، باعث پیشرفت تکنولوژی می‌شود، و برتری تکنولوژی، باعث پیشرفت‌های بیشتری می‌شوند، که در جای خود پیشرفت بیشتری نیز به دنبال می‌آورد؛ در مواردی که تفاوت‌های فرهنگی، یا ژنتیکی، به نفع اورآسیایی‌ها عمل کرده‌ است به عنوان مثال دولت متمرکز در چین، یا مقاومت ژنتیکی در برابر بسیاری بیماری‌ها در میان اورآسیای‌ها، این مزیت‌ها تنها به دلیل تأثیرات جغرافیایی به وجود آمده‌ اند، و در ژن اروپایی و آسیایی ریشه ندارنددایموند اشاره می‌کند که تقریباً تمام دستاوردهای بشری علمی، هنری، معماری، سیاسی، و غیره در قاره اورآسیا رخ داده‌ است؛ مردمان قاره‌ های دیگر جنوب صحرای آفریقا، بومیان آمریکا، بومیان استرالیا و گینه نو، و ساکنین اصلی مناطق گرمسیری آسیای جنوب شرقی، به‌ طور گسترده‌ ای مغلوب، و جا به‌ جا شده‌ اند، و در برخی موارد فوق‌العاده اشاره به بومیان آمریکا، بومیان استرالیا و بومیان خوآسان جنوب آفریقا عمدتاً از بین رفته‌ اندبرهان نخست این سلطه ی اوراسیائی‌ها، برتری‌های نظامی و سیاسی آن‌ها بوده، که خود ناشی از پیدایش زود هنگام کشاورزی، در میان این اقوام، پس از آخرین عصر یخ بوده‌ است؛ دایموند در این کتاب برهانهایی برای بازگویی چنین توزیع نامتناسبی از قدرت و دست‌آوردها پیشنهاد می‌کندعنوان کتاب نیز اشاره‌ ای است، به راههایی که به وسیله آن‌ها، اروپایی‌ها علی‌رغم تعداد نفرات کمتر، ملتهای دیگر را مغلوب کرده و سلطهٔ خود را حفظ کرده‌ اند، سلاح‌های برتر مستقیماً منجر به برتری نظامی می‌شوند اسلحه؛ بیماری‌های اروپایی و آسیایی جمعیت‌های بومی را تضعیف کرده، و کاهش داده، باعث می‌شوند اِعمال کنترل بر آن‌ها راحت‌تر شود میکروب، و دولت متمرکز ناسیونالیسم را ترویج داده، و بستری برای سازمان‌های قدرتمند نظامی به وجود می‌آورد فولاد؛کتاب از عوامل جغرافیایی استفاده می‌کند تا نشان دهد که چگونه اروپایی‌ها چنین تکنولوژی برتر نظامی‌ای تولید کرده ‌اند و چرا بیماریهایی که اروپایی‌ها، و آسیایی‌ها، نسبت به آن‌ها از حدی مصونیت برخوردار بودند، جمعیت‌های بومی آمریکا را ویران کردند؛ اوراسیا پس از آخرین عصر یخ شانس برخورداری از ویژگی‌های مطلوب جغرافیایی، اقلیمی و زیست‌ محیطی را دارا بوده‌ استدایموند دو مزیت زیست‌ محیطی اوراسیا را دلایل اصلی توسعه زودهنگام کشاورزی در این منطقه در قیاس با سایر مناطق می‌داند؛ پس از آخرین عصر یخ، با اختلاف زیادی، بهترین بذرهای وحشی و حیوانات رام شدنی تقریباً بزرگ مانند بز، سگ یا بزرگتر در طبیعت اوراسیا یافت می‌شد؛ این امر مناسبترین مواد اولیه را اختیار مبتکران اروپایی و آسیایی کشاورزی و به خصوص اهالی «آسیای جنوب غربی» تقریباً بین‌النهرین و ترکیه گذاشته بودبرتری در حیوانات رام‌ شدنی عامل پر اهمیتتربود، زیرا که مناطق دیگر، حداکثر دو و اغلب هیچ حیوان دیگری، در اختیار ساکنان خود نمی‌گذاشتند؛ مزیت دیگر اوراسیا در این بوده است، که محور شرقی غربی آن یک منطقه بسیار وسیع، با عرض جغرافیایی مشابه، و در نتیجه آب و هوای متشابه تشکیل می‌دهد؛ در نتیجه، برای مردم اورآسیا به مراتب ساده‌ تر بود که شروع به استفاده از گیاهان و حیواناتی کنند، که از پیش در سایر نقاط اوراسیا اهلی شده بودنددر مقابل، محور شمالی جنوبی آمریکا، و تا حدی آفریقا، به دلیل تنوع گسترده در آب و هوا، مانع از گسترش اهلی کردن گیاهان، و حیوانات در سراسر این قاره شد؛ حیواناتی و غلاتی که در مرکز آفریقا، یا آمریکا قابل پرورش هستند، با جنوب این قاره‌ها بسیار متفاوت است؛ از بذرهای وحشی قابل کشت، سرخپوستان ذرت را داشتند، اما این غله بر خلاف غلات اوراسیا، مواد مغذی اندکی فراهم می‌کند، و از آن مهمتر، می‌بایست یکی یکی کاشته شوند، مه کاری بسیار خسته‌ کننده است؛لازم است ذکر شود که پس از آنکه به عنوان مثال در تمدن میسیسیپی در حدود سال یکهزار میلادی، میزان کشاورزی به حدی رسید، که محصول مازاد تولید شد، آن‌ها زیستگاه‌های متراکم ،و تخصصی‌تری ساختند؛ اورآسیایی‌ها، گندم و جو در اختیار داشتند، که سرشار از فیبر، و مواد مغذی است، و می‌تواند به راحتی با دست، و به مقدار فراوان بذر افشانی شود؛ اورآسیایی‌ها، از زمان‌های بسیار پیشتر، مازاد عظیمی از مواد غذایی تولید می‌کردند، که این امکان رشد جمعیت نمایی را، به آن تمدن‌ها می‌داد چنین رشدی، منجر به تشکیل نیروی کاری بزرگتر، و مخترعان، صنعتگران، و امثالهم شد؛ به علاوه غلات که در اورآسیا یافت می‌شده‌ است می‌توانست بر عکس محصولات گرمسیری همچون موز، برای طولانی مدت ذخیره شود؛ در حالیکه سرزمین‌های جنوب صحرای آفریقا عمدتاً از پستانداران وحشی، برخوردار بوده‌ اند، اورآسیا بر حسب شانس، بیشترین حیوانات بزرگ سربزیر رام شدنی را، در سرتاسر جهان در اختیار دارد اسب و شتر که می‌توانند، به راحتی برای حمل و نقل بشر مهار می‌شوند، بز و گوسفند برای پوست، پوشاک، و پنیر؛ گاو برای شیر و ورزا برای خیش زدن زمین، و حمل و نقل، و حیوانات خوش‌خیم همانند خوک‌ها، و مرغ برای خوردن آفریقایی‌ها، بر حسب تصادف جغرافیایی، با شیر، پلنگ و امثالهم طرف بوده‌ انددایموند اشاره می‌کند که تنها جانورانی مفید برای استفاده بشر در «گینه نو» در واقع از شرق آسیا آمده‌ اند؛ اینها حدود چهارهزار تا پنجهزار سال پیش، و هنگام گسترش استرانیزی به گینه نو وارد شده‌ اند؛ در انتهای کتاب دایموند اجمالاً به بررسی این نکته می‌پردازد، که چرا قدرتهای مسلط در پانصد سال گذشته، ساکنین غرب اروپا، و نه آسیا به ویژه شرق آسیا و چین بوده‌ اند؛ در مورد جنوب غرب آسیا، دایموند پاسخ پریسش را واضح می‌داند استفاده طولانی مدت و گاه بیش از اندازه، اغلب مناطق جنوب غرب آسیا را بسیار خشک و غیرقابل کشت کرده بود و جنگل زدایی و دیگر فاجعه‌ های زیست‌ محیطی، از این مراکز اولیه تمدن، صحراهای کم‌آب و علفی ساخته بود، که نمی‌توانستند به راحتی با سرزمین‌های حاصل‌خیز اروپا، رقابت کننددر مورد مناطق شرق آسیا، دایموند حدس می‌زند، که ویژگی‌های جغرافیایی این سرزمین‌ها، باعث تشکیل امپراتوری بزرگ، با ثبات و جدا افتاده‌ ای شد، که هیچ فشار خارجی قابل توجهی، آن را تهدید نمی‌کرده‌ است؛ این امر باعث تمرکز بیش از حد تصمیم‌گیری شده، و نوعی خودکامگی بی‌رقابت را، ایجاد کرده‌ است، که خود پس از مدتی، منجر به ایستایی جامعه، و در مواردی مانند اختراع اسلحه و کشتی‌های اقیانوس پیما سرکوب تکنولوژی از سوی حاکمان شده‌ است؛ در اروپا وجود موانع طبیعی بسیار مانند کوه‌های عظیم و خلیجها منجر به ایجاد دول ملی محلی رقیب شد؛ این رقابت کشورهای اروپایی را با اینکه مانند چین توسط حاکمان خودکامه کنترل می‌شدند تشویق به نوآوری کرد و از رکود فناوری جلوگیری شدا شربیانی

  10. carol. carol. says:

    Stopped on page 88 for the time being because man do people ever suck We historically sucked But since humans used to invade other humans' territory and do a lot of killing at least things have changed nowOh wait

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