Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and

Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and


Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them ❮BOOKS❯ ✻ Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them ✴ Author Joshua D. Greene – Centrumpowypadkowe.co.uk The Boston Globe Surprising and remarkable Toggling between big ideas, technical details, and his personal intellectual journey, Greene writes a thesis suitable to both airplane reading and PhD semina The Boston Globe Surprising and remarkable Toggling between Emotion, Reason, Epub Ù big ideas, technical details, and his personal intellectual journey, Greene writes a thesis suitable to both airplane reading and PhD seminars Our brains were designed for tribal life, for getting along with a select group of others Us and for fighting off everyone else Them But modern times have forced the world s tribes into a shared space, resulting in epic clashes of values along with unprecedented opportunities As the world shrinks, the moral lines that divide us become salient and puzzling We fight over Moral Tribes: PDF/EPUB or everything from tax codes to gay marriage to global warming, and we wonder where, if at all, we can find our common ground A grand synthesis of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy, Moral Tribes reveals the underlying causes of modern conflict and lights the way forward Greene compares the human brain to a dual mode camera, with point and shoot automatic settings portrait, landscape as well as a manual mode Our point and shoot settings are our emotions efficient, automated programs honed by evolution, culture, and personal experience The brain s manual mode is its Tribes: Emotion, Reason, ePUB ´ capacity for deliberate reasoning, which makes our thinking flexible Point and shoot emotions make us social animals, turning Me into Us But they also make us tribal animals, turning Us against Them Our tribal emotions make us fight sometimes with bombs, sometimes with words often with life and death stakes An award winning teacher and scientist, Greene directs Harvard University s Moral Cognition Lab, which uses cutting edge neuroscience and cognitive techniques to understand how people really make moral decisions Combining insights from the lab with lessons from decades of social science and centuries of philosophy, the great question of Moral Tribes is this How can we get along with Them when what they want feels so wrong to Us Ultimately, Greene offers a set of maxims for navigating the modern moral terrain, a practical road map for solving problems and living better lives Moral Tribes shows us when to trust our instincts, when to reason, and how the right kind of reasoning can move us forward A major achievement from a rising star in a new scientific field, Moral Tribes will refashion your deepest beliefs about how moral thinking works and how it can work better.

    Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and of philosophy, the great question of Moral Tribes is this How can we get along with Them when what they want feels so wrong to Us Ultimately, Greene offers a set of maxims for navigating the modern moral terrain, a practical road map for solving problems and living better lives Moral Tribes shows us when to trust our instincts, when to reason, and how the right kind of reasoning can move us forward A major achievement from a rising star in a new scientific field, Moral Tribes will refashion your deepest beliefs about how moral thinking works and how it can work better."/>
  • Kindle Edition
  • 433 pages
  • Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them
  • Joshua D. Greene
  • English
  • 03 June 2019

About the Author: Joshua D. Greene

Joshua D Greene is an American experimental psychologist, Emotion, Reason, Epub Ù neuroscientist, and philosopher He is a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and the director of Harvard s Moral Cognition Lab The majority of his research and writing has been concerned with moral judgment and decision making His most recent research focuses on fundamental issues in cognitive science.



10 thoughts on “Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them

  1. David David says:

    Humans have evolved the ability to be cooperative, in order to help our own survival in difficult times This ability usually prevents us from being completely selfish We cooperate with other members of our group, our tribe , and solves the dilemma between Me and Us The problem is, that this same mechanism generates a different dilemma, a competition between Us and Them We find that we generally have the same moral outlook as others in our tribe , and we do not even consider the mor Humans have evolved the ability to be cooperative, in order to help our own survival in difficult times This ability usually prevents us from being completely selfish We cooperate with other members of our group, our tribe , and solves the dilemma between Me and Us The problem is, that this same mechanism generates a different dilemma, a competition between Us and Them We find that we generally have the same moral outlook as others in our tribe , and we do not even consider the moral outlook of outsiders.This, in a nutshell, is the basic dilemma in this excellent book by Joshua Greene Greene is the director of the Moral Cognition Lab in Harvard University s Department of Psychology He conducts psychological experiments, and uses the results to develop some fascinating theories about the problem of morality.I was very much surprised by some experiments concerning the perceived risks of climate change Contrary to what I expected, the degree of scientific literacy and numeracy is inversely correlated with the perception of risk due to climate change Instead, the membership in a political tribe is a much better predictor of belief in the risks While the vast majority of scientists believe in the risks, most people do not want to consult with the experts in this area They prefer to consult with other members of their political sphere.Much of the book is devoted to the famous moral dilemma of the trolley car Suppose a trolley car is out of control It will soon run over and kill a group of five workmen, unless something is done immediately You have access to a track switch, that will switch the trolley onto a siding where only a single workman will be killed The question is, would you pull the switch Most people would pull the switch.But now, here is the moral dilemma, for a somewhat different scenario Suppose the same trolley is on course to kill five workmen But you are up on a footbridge, and immediately in front of you is a man with an oversized backpack If you were to push that man over the side of the bridge, the trolley car would be stopped, but that man would die Again, would you push the man over Most people would not.So, why not What is the moral difference between pulling the switch and pushing the man over the side The outcomes would be the same, so why do most people make a distinction Here, Joshua Greene analyzes this question in great detail The simplest explanation, is that in the switch case, the death of the lone workman is an incidental side effect, while in the case of pushing the man over the side of the footbridge, that act is the means to an end Greene takes these scenarios and presents a compelling theory, why most people have such a strong aversion to pushing the man off the footbridge.Joshua Greene discusses a moral philosophy called utilitarianism This philosophy advocates that people should act to maximize the collective level of happiness There are plenty of critics of this philosophy, but Greene does a good job of addressing their criticisms Greene looks at the controversy surrounding abortions He shows that the two sides in the controversy claim certain rights pro lifers claim the right to life, while pro choice people claim that a woman has a right to choose what happens to her body Greene analyzes the controversy in some detail, and concludes that both sides have excellent arguments, and that both sides are somewhat hypocritical in their not taking their rights arguments to their logical conclusions In the end, Greene concludes that any argument that relies on rights are specious Instead, he recommends a pragmatic approach, that requires some deep manual thinking.A leit motif throughout the book is a metaphor, which likens our moral outlook to a camera with automatic and manual settings Evolution has given us an automatic mode of thinking, where we generally hold the beliefs of our tribe But, tribes often have moral beliefs that conflict with those of other tribes, and neither set of beliefs are necessarily better So it behooves us to switch over to manual mode, and use reason to think about the issues At the end of the book, Greene offers six pragmatic rules to help resolve moral issues If you are interested in philosophy, in morality, or sociology, I highly recommend this book

  2. Joshua Stein Joshua Stein says:

    There s a lot to be said about Moral Tribes but I will divide the comment roughly into two parts 1 the smart commentary on moral psychology and 2 the weak commentary on ethics It is worth noting that the strong points and weak points should be unsurprising given Greene s background he s a renown neuroscientist It seems to make sense that his recapitulation of his groundbreaking work would be terrific and engaging, and that the book would weaken in discussions of other domains The openin There s a lot to be said about Moral Tribes but I will divide the comment roughly into two parts 1 the smart commentary on moral psychology and 2 the weak commentary on ethics It is worth noting that the strong points and weak points should be unsurprising given Greene s background he s a renown neuroscientist It seems to make sense that his recapitulation of his groundbreaking work would be terrific and engaging, and that the book would weaken in discussions of other domains The opening chapters of the book, though, are even stronger than I anticipated Greene talks elegantly through the game theory, evolutionary biology, and eventually neuroscience that underlie his theory of cognition It is an absolute master class in science writing for a mainstream audience For the first few chapters alone I recommend reading the book, if for no other reason than to glean the smart interdisciplinary methodologies of evolutionary psychology and neuroscience Greene s theory of moral cognition is compelling, but he also doesn t skimp on engaging with his competitors His discussion of John Mikhail is the best I ve read I ll be reading Mikhail s major book next and he has me convinced that the folks in this domain are really all having good, productive discussion, which isn t always the default in academia I suspect that Greene s theory is incomplete, but I m sure he d be able to engage well with my technical concerns Several of them have already been engaged in his exchanges with some philosophers The book goes off the rails in the philosophical discussion of the last 100 or so pages My concerns are numerous, the first is that he is strikingly dismissive of rights based theories pp 305 without actually referring to any of the literature on said theories and then immediately turning around and suggesting that in some cases it s ok to used rights based theories to protect beliefs against the utilitarian arguments he advocates pp 308 It s not really a well developed step change, and he stumbles over it in his attempt to illustrate the abortion issue, where he mangles together ethical and public policy considerations The book should be taken seriously for what it does well, offer a tremendous contribution to the blossoming field of moral psychology It demonstrates the significant role neuroscience and psychology have to play in understanding social relations and, for that, we ought to be attentive But it would be nice if the philosophical discussions were a bitrigorous I suspect there s a lotto come from Greene, though, and that it will getphilosophically sophisticated in the future, as his work does include a lot of serious engagement with philosophers

  3. Mara Mara says:

    I m going to go ahead and assume that there are summaries out there that will tell you what this book is about, so I m just gonna tell you why I think it was pretty great.1 It s enormously readable True to his affiliation as a utilitarian, Greene keeps his arguments clear and fairly concise When he s gonna gointo depth on something that isn t crucial to understanding his overall point he tells you to go for it and skip ahead 2 He summarizes the arguments of a lot of authors books tha I m going to go ahead and assume that there are summaries out there that will tell you what this book is about, so I m just gonna tell you why I think it was pretty great.1 It s enormously readable True to his affiliation as a utilitarian, Greene keeps his arguments clear and fairly concise When he s gonna gointo depth on something that isn t crucial to understanding his overall point he tells you to go for it and skip ahead 2 He summarizes the arguments of a lot of authors books that I have enjoyed reading, but that might be less accessible So, yay for TL DR versions of a lot of Steven Pinker, Jonathan Haidt, Paul Bloom, and then the brigade of classic moral philosophers e.g Kant, Bentham and Mills etc 3 and beyond Whether or not you come out of this agreeing with Greene, you will have a much better, disambiguated sense of key concepts in moral philosophy psychology, moral cognition and of the overall utilitarian which he calls deep pragmatism approach to moral philosophy.The last time I read anything on utilitarianism I just remember walking away from it wanting to push Peter Singer in front of a trolley That s a joke, by the way, if you re not much of a trolley ologist There are a bunch of ways in which utilitarianism is often according to Greene misconstrued, but the one that resonated most with me was Greene s response to the idea thatUtilitarianism requires you to turn yourself into a happiness pump This is what turned me off to, at the very least, Peter Singer s utilitarianism, but Greene brings up a really great point There s a social dimension to the problem that may, in the long run, favor strong efforts over heroic ones Your life is a model for othersIf you improve the lives of hundreds of people every year through your charitable donations, but your life remains happy and comfortable, you re a model that others can emulate If, instead, you push yourself to just shy of your breaking point, you may dogood directly with your personal donation dollars, but you may undermine the larger cause by making an unappealing exampleYes This is the point I wish I had been coherently able to make to the vegan in one of my classes note I am a non dairy consuming vegetarian who wouldn t drink beer because of the yeast in it I m sure there s some argument to be made for his case, but I just felt like he made vegetarianism and veganism seem absurd And ridiculous Ok, I ll move on This book is applied moral psychology He explains how our brains work, why we might think the ways we do, when our intuitive thinking is useful, and when it causes trouble for us What Greene addresses is how we, as a society, might be better off addressing issues that are controversial He doesn t solve these issues, but he makes a good case for why as we tend to do having each side justify its own beliefs is a recipe for polarization and disaster

  4. Eduardo Santiago Eduardo Santiago says:

    As a fresh take on utilitaniarism it s first rate new perspectives, new research, insightful questions But ultimately he s just preaching to the choir because the single most important question of our age is not even mentioned how to reach those who don t realize they are immoral That is, people whose brains through no fault of their own consider Loyalty To Tribe and Obedience To Authority to be moral, rendering them vulnerable to charismatic psychopaths like Rush Limbaugh or evangelical pre As a fresh take on utilitaniarism it s first rate new perspectives, new research, insightful questions But ultimately he s just preaching to the choir because the single most important question of our age is not even mentioned how to reach those who don t realize they are immoral That is, people whose brains through no fault of their own consider Loyalty To Tribe and Obedience To Authority to be moral, rendering them vulnerable to charismatic psychopaths like Rush Limbaugh or evangelical preachers or anyone on Fox News They re not going to read this They re not going to question their gut reactions or listen to anyone suggesting that they do heresyThis is a very real problem, and unfortunately no amount of philosophical arguing is going to address that And on that depressing note, Happy Newtonmas

  5. Richard Richard says:

    Update, July 2019As I noted in the review, Greene cemented his reputation partially by putting folks into fMRI machines and asking them Trolleyology type questions Well, if you find that interesting, you should check out the Kickstarter game Trial By Trolley A party game of moral dilemmas and trolley murderIt s offensively gruesome, so maybe it s best to think of it as Trolleyology by way of Cards Against Humanity Definitely not for the squeamish, but I ve definitely ordered a copy Update, July 2019As I noted in the review, Greene cemented his reputation partially by putting folks into fMRI machines and asking them Trolleyology type questions Well, if you find that interesting, you should check out the Kickstarter game Trial By Trolley A party game of moral dilemmas and trolley murderIt s offensively gruesome, so maybe it s best to think of it as Trolleyology by way of Cards Against Humanity Definitely not for the squeamish, but I ve definitely ordered a copy Greene looks at the evolutionary origins of intergroup conflict, and attempts to demonstrate that deep pragmatism a form of utilitarianism can address the dilemma that arises due to human s evolution as a tribal species.He doesn t succeed, however His reasoning contains a few flaws, but ultimately he simply doesn t address the toughest cases and relies on something akin to an appeal to urgency That isn t listed as a fallacy in my textbook on critical thinking, but so what A wealth of background and history is given, though, which makes the book a fairly useful one Greene does repeat himself somewhat probably a subconscious effort to bolster his weak case , and a good editor could probably have shaved off a few dozen pages, at least.The problem at hand is described as the Tragedy of Commonsense Morality This is Greene s intergroup analogue of the well studied intragroup paradox known as the Tragedy of the Commons Both are gradually explored through the use of game theory, neuroscience and evolutionary psychology.Trolleyology is used a lot in his analysis This is understandable Greene cemented his reputation as a cognitive researcher by asking test subjects about that infamous moral dilemma while inside of a fMRI machine So it is a little ironic that this is also where he stumbles.First, he conflates two sets of answers He argues quite persuasively that evolution took some shortcuts in coming up with quick and dirty responses to different patterns, and that the divergence in those responses to very similar situations is arbitrary for an understandable reason To put it very briefly, our different answer to the footbridge versus the baseline switch situations is because we are blind to side effects because evolution didn t give us the ability to intuitively keep track of multiple chains of causality see page 225 and following That s fine except he later tells us that when philosophers created a deontological reason for the same thing, that we must dismiss their reasoning as mere rationalization Uh, no very poor logic Even if it is true that the flawed evolutionary constructed intuition is inconsistent in its conclusions, that doesn t mean that any other analysis of the same situation must be as well The remainder of the book relies on his erroneous belief that he could effectively dispense with ethics.Second, Greene introduces a very hard ethical case early in his discussion of trolleyology that of a surgeon who is able to heal several other people by stealing organs from one healthy albeit unwilling donor see page 109 He admits to being blindsided by that, so I anticipated him showing how it would be dealt with at some point with his utilitarian approach But he never did Instead, he relied on some hand waving, asserting that utilitarianism, if wisely applied, would prove capable of being deeply pragmatic Wait we have to rely on wisdom But isn t that precisely what is in short supply In fact, he points out that just thinking really hard isn t going to help us our brains are wired very poorly for that page 296.The rationalizations of ethics address the hard cases fairly well Specifically, the doctrine of double effect in conjunction with Kant s categorical imperative, God damn it, you ve got to be kind His goal was laudable, but the problem is harder than he perceived.Ultimately, however, this wasn t the book I expected it to be The word tribes in the title implied something a bit different to me than Greene intended, and I was disappointed about that, too As I ve noted, the tribe Greene points to is the evolutionary source of our quite irrational thinking about intergroup conflict resolution What I hoped the book was going to be about was the highly tribal partisan behavior that plagues society today My favorite academic addressing this is still Dan Kahan, who researches Identity Protective Cultural Cognition at Yale Law School But he hasn t written any books that cover the subject broadly, and his risk perception orientation isn t quite what I m looking for The basic idea is that the tribal roots of our cognition what Greene is also pointing to create a very strong impetus for us to think in terms of tribes even today, and that kind of motivated thinking is becoming increasingly prevalent A good primer on that is the New Yorker article,Why Facts Don t Change Our MindsPostscript I will say his endnote and bibliography are great There are a lot of classic journal articles that I ve always wanted the citations to, and he definitely delivers Post postscript My original pre review listed a number of reviews and interviews, which I ll tack on here, just in case someone wants to dig into the archives Good hour long radio interview with author on KQED Forum at Another interview with the author at the podcast Inquiring Minds Review in GuardianUK Review in Telegraph Review in Independent Review in The Atlantic by Robert Wright, researcher and author of a number of books on point Review in the New Republic Review in Boston Globe the NY Times didn t bother with it

  6. Bruce Bruce says:

    4 stars for the science related material, a generous 2 stars for the philosophical goop, which comprises the bulk of the book To deflect criticisms of utilitarianism, Greene qualifies its rules to such a degree that nothing is left save think carefully about things and your obligation to help others That s fine, but I don t need to read hundreds of pages to arrive at that dictum The science portions of the book could have been better directed The author goes into great detail regarding th 4 stars for the science related material, a generous 2 stars for the philosophical goop, which comprises the bulk of the book To deflect criticisms of utilitarianism, Greene qualifies its rules to such a degree that nothing is left save think carefully about things and your obligation to help others That s fine, but I don t need to read hundreds of pages to arrive at that dictum The science portions of the book could have been better directed The author goes into great detail regarding the trolley dilemma While this discussion was interesting, and this dilemma nicely traces the interplay between emotion and reason, other emotional modules are highly relevant to group tribe formation and interactions these should have been discussed in addition to the trolley stuff These other modules may be especially important, since in modern Western society, groups do not result from geographical isolation Group formation in modern societies may depend on one s location on the individualist vs collectivist spectrum, which might be determined from a complex interplay between genetics and one s assessment of whether one will benefit or be harmed by redistribution of wealth In turn, one s location on this spectrum may influence group membership, and that membership likely profoundly affects the emotional mis interpretation of real world data even by a Harvard professor I don t require a book on groups to adopt my view, but in such a book, I really want to read an attempt to understand what underpins group formation in Western society

  7. Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin says:

    The tragedy of the commons was proposed in 1968 by Garrett Hardin it involves the conflicting interests between the individual me and the group us Humans solved this dilemma many hundreds of thousands of years ago Our minds according to Joshua Greene are packed with moral gizmos in our brain that make us excellent cooperates and solve the dilemma of Me vs Us which is Common sense morality Common sense morality is the kind of heuristics we have and emotional responses to others that makes The tragedy of the commons was proposed in 1968 by Garrett Hardin it involves the conflicting interests between the individual me and the group us Humans solved this dilemma many hundreds of thousands of years ago Our minds according to Joshua Greene are packed with moral gizmos in our brain that make us excellent cooperates and solve the dilemma of Me vs Us which is Common sense morality Common sense morality is the kind of heuristics we have and emotional responses to others that makes this cooperation possible The catch is that common sense moral modules that help us form groups form them in the presence of in group out group competition While we are social we are also very tribal In the modern world this translates into the Tragedy of Commonsense Morality Our tribal groupishness which at one time was an advantage is divide the world into hostile tribes and is tearing nations apart The author argues that a meta morality will be need to adjudicate conflict between tribal groups and he offers a form of pragmatism or utilitarianism as a meta morality In this book we go on excursions of the famous trolley problem and into cognitive neuroscience and ethical philosophy The author has a way of taking deep issues in neuroscience and complex issues in ethics philosophy and explaining it clearly and entertainingly Much recommended

  8. Riku Sayuj Riku Sayuj says:

    The most detailed book length treatment of Trolley ology I have read The best remains

  9. Eliana Eliana says:

    So when my mom got this book I was sure it was going to be either about how Group A is right, and everyone else should GTFO, or about how really dead down we all agree on everything and conflict is really the vault of insert group name here It turned out to be neither of those things Instead, it s an extremely interesting look at why some actions make humans uncomfortable, why that impulse isn t always correct, and how to make ethical decisions without completely relying on gut feeling.

  10. Teo 2050 Teo 2050 says:

    2016.01.06 2016.01.17If you re into all three of these, relevant background reading for, and referenced in, Moral Tribes might include The Righteous Mind Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion Haidt and Thinking, Fast and Slow Kahneman I agree that utilitarianism or deep pragmatism basically is what we do when trying to find common ground weighing harms and benefits , and I m sympathetic to these kinds of Morality, Fast and Slow trains of thought and research It s go 2016.01.06 2016.01.17If you re into all three of these, relevant background reading for, and referenced in, Moral Tribes might include The Righteous Mind Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion Haidt and Thinking, Fast and Slow Kahneman I agree that utilitarianism or deep pragmatism basically is what we do when trying to find common ground weighing harms and benefits , and I m sympathetic to these kinds of Morality, Fast and Slow trains of thought and research It s good to have Moral Cognition labs But I ve yet to look into whether this they help disagreeing moral tribes find common currency or manage to mostly preach to the already utilitarian crowd Ultimately, harmonizing moral intuitions might require education in science and changes in metaphysical views And maybe Moral Tribes falls under such education but is it accessible enough to have effects outside the already sympathetic camp ContentsGreene J 2013 14 53 Moral Tribes Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and ThemIntroduction The Tragedy of Commonsense Morality Life on the New Pastures Toward a Global Moral Philosophy The PlanPart I Moral Problems01 The Tragedy of the Commons The Function of Morality Metamorality02 Moral Machinery The Magic Corner Family Values Tit For Tat Besties Minimal Decency Threats and Promises Watchful Eyes and Discerning Minds Members Only Interested Parties Moral Machinery03 Strife on the New Pastures The Psychology of Conflict Tribalism Cooperation, On What Terms Honor Versus Harmony Local Morality Biased Fairness Biased Perception Biased Escalation Life and Strife on the New PasturesPart II Morality Fast and Slow04 Trolleyology The Trolley Problem Into the Scanner Experimental Trolleyology Takes Off The Patient on the Trolley Tracks Of Two Moral Minds05 Efficiency, Flexibility, and the Dual Process Brain Emotion Versus Reason The Dual Process Brain Getting SmartPart III Common Currency06 A Splendid Idea A Splendid Idea The Wisdom of the Elders Consequentialism, Utilitarianism, and Pragmatism Mis understanding Utilitarianism A Remarkable Convergence07 In Search of Common Currency Does Our Common Currency Come from God Is Morality Like Math Does Science Deliver the Moral Truth Plan B In Search of Shared Values08 Common Currency Found What is Utilitarianism From General Rationality to Utilitarian Morality What s Wrong with Utilitarianism Part IV Moral Convictions09 Alarming Acts Pushing Moral Buttons Means and Side Effect Modular Myopia Why Aren t We Psychopaths Blindness to Side Effects Doing and Allowing Utilitarianism Versus the Gizmo10 Justice and Fairness Is Utilitarianism Too Demanding The Duty to Help Personal Commitments Human Values Versus Ideal Values Just Desserts Ideal Justice The Just Society The Wealthitarian Fallacy Justice and the Greater GoodPart V Moral Solutions11 Deep Pragmatism Two Compasses When to Point and Shoot Me Vs Us Versus Us Vs Them Out of Our Depth The Secret Jokes of Our Souls Rationalization and the Dual Process Brain Heads I Win, Tails You Lose Rights as Rationalization Rights as Weapons and Shields Abortion A Case Study Abortion The Pragmatic Approach Waiting for Godot Why I m a Liberal, and What It Would Take to Change My Mind12 Beyond Point and Shoot Morality Six Rules for Modern Herders 1 In the face of moral controversy, consult, but do not trust, your moral instincts 2 Rights are not for making arguments they re for ending arguments 3 Focus on the facts, and make others do the same 4 Beware of biased fairness 5 Use common currency 6 Give

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